State lawmakers are looking to penalize local governments that adopt sanctuary city policies, following in the footsteps of President Trump's executive order to do the same.
The Center for Immigration Studies, which supports Trump's tougher stance on immigration, has identified roughly 300 sanctuary jurisdictions in the United States. Sanctuary jurisdictions are generally agreed to be local municipalities or cities that don't cooperate with Immigration and Customs Enforcement policies to hand over illegal immigrants for deportation.
Here are the states in which legislation is moving to pressure those jurisdictions to abandon their "sanctuary" status.
The House Civil Justice & Claims Subcommittee passed House Bill 697 this week, which would penalize some of Florida's biggest counties. Its sister bill, SB 786, has been filed and is currently awaiting a hearing in the Senate Judiciary Committee.
If the bills are passed, Broward, Palm Beach, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco and Hernando counties — those counties identified as "sanctuary jurisdictions" — would be required to "fully comply" with federal immigration law. They would also have 90 days to repeal any of their sanctuary policies.
As of Oct. 1, any local government still with a sanctuary policy could be fined $5,000 a day. Government entities in the Sunshine State would also be prevented from adopting new sanctuary policies.
"The one thing that everybody should know in our country is: We can't choose which laws we'll obey or which laws we don't obey," said Sen. Aaron Bean, R-Fernandina Beach, author of the Senate legislation.
Sen. Greg Steube, R-Sarasota, is a co-sponsor of Bean's legislation, and he is also chairman of the Judiciary Committee.
HB 697 still has to pass through two more committee hearings before it could reach the House floor.
Iowa has nearly two-dozen counties that have adopted sanctuary policies, and soon they could be forced to dismantle those policies.
Senate Study Bill 1172 passed through the Iowa Senate Local Government Committee earlier this month and is currently on the Senate floor. There is a similar bill pending in the Iowa house.
If passed, law enforcement in cities, counties and college campuses would be prevented from enacting sanctuary policies, or face a loss of state funds. Iowa law enforcement would also have to comply with federal immigration detainer requests.
The legislation comes after Iowa City officials adopted a resolution that prevents city resources from being used to enforce federal immigration law if there is no public safety threat.
The Senate bill faces opposition from the Iowa League of Cities, Iowa Police Chiefs Association, Interfaith Alliance of Iowa, American Civil Liberties Union of Iowa, Iowa Catholic Conference and Iowa Annual Conference of the United Methodist Church.
Secretary of State Kris Kobach — a staunch Trump supporter — had Rep. John Whitmer, R-Wichita, introduce a pair of bills on his behalf that would require the Kansas Highway Patrol to partner with the Department of Homeland Security on immigration enforcement.
The bills were "conceptually" introduced in February in the House Federal and State Affairs Committee, meaning there is nothing ready to pass into law yet.
Kansas Highway Patrol was not consulted with first before the bills were introduced, according to local news reports. According to a draft of the legislation, one of the bills would instruct KHP to negotiate and sign an agreement with DHS "concerning the enforcement of federal immigration laws, detentions and removals, and related investigations."
The other bill would prevent Kansas cities and counties from adopting sanctuary policies going forward, and force them to cooperate with ICE.
Kansas has a handful of counties considered "sanctuary."
Rep. Dan Johnson — who made national news last year for posting photos on his Facebook page depicting former President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle as apes — introduced legislation last month that would prohibit sanctuary jurisdictions from resisting Trump's executive order.
Johnson's bill mandates that each "law enforcement officer has a duty to cooperate with state and federal agencies and officials" when enforcing federal immigration law.
Kentucky's local government's would also be forbidden from enacting any policies going forward inhibiting cooperation with federal law enforcement agencies seeking to enforce federal immigration laws.
The North Carolina House Judiciary Committee voted 6-5 along party lines this week to advance legislation that would strip state funds from local governments working to protect illegal immigrants.
Penalties for makers or sellers of fake IDs would also be increased under the legislation, House Bill 63.
HB 63 is seen as a means to prop up a bill signed by former Gov. Pat McCrory that prohibits local governments from adopting new sanctuary policies.
The bill has to pass through the appropriations and finance committees before it goes to the House.
A similar bill is in the Senate, which would punish cities, universities and law enforcement ignoring state and federal immigration laws. Cities would lose money for streets, as well as revenue from beer and wine taxes.
Public universities would also lose state funding for money earmarked for specific purposes should they protect illegal immigrants.
The Republican-controlled Pennsylvania Senate passed a bill last month that would stop the flow of hundreds of millions of dollars in state subsidies to city and county governments not honoring ICE detention requests.
Philadelphia, the state's largest city, received more than $340 million in federal grants in fiscal year 2015 — and could be one of the hardest hit. Mayor Jim Kenney has vowed the city will remain a sanctuary city, and says the Senate bill is "mystifying."
Going forward, local government's would also be banned from adopting "a rule, order, ordinance or policy under which it prohibits the enforcement of the laws of the Commonwealth or federal laws pertaining to immigrants or immigrations, including the federal Immigration and Nationality Act."
Senate Bill 10 now goes to the House.
The House State Affairs Committee is currently debating Senate Bill 4, which already passed through the state Senate in a party-line vote last month.
The legislation would penalize city and county governments in the LoneStar State that are sanctuary cities by stripping them of state grant funding. The local governments could also be subject to civil fines, and should department heads violate any provisions of SB4, they could also be subject to criminal prosecution.
Local governments in Texas would also be banned from creating any new policies to make them sanctuary jurisdictions — effectively ending sanctuary cities in the state.
Republican Gov. Greg Abbott named SB4 as part of his list of emergency items, which allowed lawmakers to vote on it before the traditional 60-day waiting period to hear bills on either chamber floor.
There are two bills in the Republican-control General Assembly focusing on sanctuary cities and illegal immigrants.
House Bill 2236 would cut state funding to any local governments adopting policies that restrict the enforcement of federal immigration laws. Senate Bill 1262 would allow victims of crimes committed by illegal immigrants to sue the city.
Democratic Gov. Terry McAuliffe has promised to veto both bills, as he did with House Bill 1468 earlier this month. That legislation forced Virginia prisons and jails to hold illegal immigrants an addition 48 hours beyond their sentence if ICE authorities were seeking to deport them.
Rep. Janel Brandtjen, R-Menomonee, introduced a proposal to penalize sanctuary cities in Wisconsin.
Local governments that fail to continue to abide by sanctuary policies could be fined anywhere from $500 to $5,000 per day depending on city population.
"It's unfortunate we have to have the conversation saying we need to uphold the federal laws that exist in our communities," said Brandtjen. "This is part of keeping our communities safe – and there are bad apples that need to be taken off the streets, that's just the truth of it."
Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett has said Milwaukee Police will continue its current policy of referring only violent criminals to federal agents, not people with minor offenses like traffic violations.