When President Obama leaves office in January, among the angriest of core constituencies who wished the president accomplished more in his eight years will most likely be Latinos for his failure to deliver comprehensive immigration reform.
"He completely failed us in 2008, and he failed us in 2012," the Center for Community Change Action's Kica Matos said about Obama's campaign promises to overhaul the immigration laws and offer a path to citizenship for the nation's 11 million illegal immigrants.
They shake their heads about his attempts to get Republicans on board instead of just pushing it through, as he did with the healthcare reform, while Democrats controlled Congress in 2009 and 2010.
He tried showing Republicans that he would be tough on deportation and border security "and it backfired," said Matt Nelson of Presente.org, which is the largest online organization advancing social justice for the Latino community. "It was a deliberate but failed political strategy" of tacking right to "appease the more nativist elements in Congress."
"President Obama's failed political chess games have had disastrous effects on" immigrant communities, Nelson said.
National Council of La Raza President Janet Murguia recently leveled the same charge at Obama.
"His strategy early on was to prove his enforcement bona fides," she told the Associated Press. "We fault him, I believe correctly, for failing to recognize soon enough this intransigence by Congress and failing to use his authority sooner."
Setting the presidential record for deportations stings far more than his political miscalculations on overhauling the entire immigration system, immigrant advocates say.
"United We Dream stands by the title that President Barack Obama has garnered for himself as 'deporter-in-chief,'" said Greisa Martinez, the group's advocacy director. He has sent 2.5 million undocumented immigrants home. "I think it's outrageous," she said, noting that parents of so-called Dreamers are among them.
Young adults who were illegally brought to the U.S. as children adopted the nickname after the Republican-controlled House refused to pass the Dream Act, which would have given the group a pathway to citizenship.
Obama protected the 730,000 Dreamers from deportation by executive authority, the best he could do without congressional approval.
Frank Sharry, founder of America's Voice, a leading immigration reform organization, said the Supreme Court denied Obama a better legacy when in June it deadlocked over his controversial 2014 order that would have shielded millions of illegal aliens from deportation.
"If the Supreme Court had ruled in his favor, he'd probably be remembered as the person who helped to protect half of the undocumented population in the country, which probably would have been a turning point toward reform sooner rather than later," Sharry told the Associated Press.
For many, that sealed his legacy as "deporter-in-chief." A legacy of "ripping apart immigrant families is nothing to be proud of," Nelson said.
That moniker dates back to at least 2011 when Nelson's group was the first to use it, he said. Murguia slapped it on him during the council's annual awards gala in March 2014.
Anger over raids
The Latino community has also seethed over Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids, the most recent of which were this summer.
"For a nation that claims to be the world leader in refugee protection, we need to act that way in our own hemisphere," Sharry said when word of a new wave of raids spread in May.
Amid large-scale raids in January, Nelson said Hispanic voters have more than just a Donald Trump presidency to fear.
"But with President Obama initiating these raids, it's less clear what the Democratic Party's position is on immigration," Nelson said.
Even when Obama does something that immigrant advocates support, they take aim because they feel betrayed.
"There is nothing to review," Pablo Alvarado, director of the National Day Labor Organizing Network, said when the Homeland Security Department announced last week that it would investigate whether the U.S. should use privately run immigration detention centers.
"No one should ever profit from other people's pain, and the use of private contractors is a practice that frankly should have been ended by the Obama administration seven years ago," he said.
The DHS review comes on the heels of the Justice Department's Aug. 18 decision to ultimately close all privately run federal prisons.
"We cannot afford to wait," Carla Kleefeld of the Women Donors Network said last Monday. "We urge President Obama and Secretary Jeh Johnson to act quickly to end the horrific practice of for-profit imprisonment for immigrants."
2014 a low point
The year 2014 was a particularly bad year for Obama-immigrant relations. In May, he put off a DHS review of deportation policies and in September announced that he would postpone any attempts to help illegal immigrants until after the mid-term elections.
"It is infuriating and confusing to hear that President Obama has decided to delay the DHS deportation review in hopes that the GOP will somehow have a change of heart," stated Arturo Carmona, who was with Presente.org in 2014.
Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., hired Carmona last fall to help his presidential campaign reach out to the Hispanic community.
"To say we are disappointed that President Obama is kicking the can further down the road is an understatement," he added. "It's time to stop tip-toeing around the fact that President Obama is responsible for the destruction of the immigrant family in this country."
The Pico National Network's Campaign for Citizenship was equally incredulous that Obama decided to hold off on new executive orders to protect vulnerable Senate Democrats.
"Today, the president and the Senate Democrats have made it very clear that undocumented immigrants and Latinos are simply viewed as political pawns," Pico's Eddie Carmona stated.
Despite all the bad blood, some advocates say Obama can still improve his record on the issue.
"We're in the final hour of his presidency and there is a path for him to turn around what could be codified as his legacy as deporter-in-chief," Nelson said, adding that he can exercise additional executive authority and scale back his deportation program.
Jesus Guzman of the Graton Day Labor Center in Northern California said Latino groups will press him until his final day in office.
"We are calling on him to do the right thing and to use his power wisely during these last six months of office," he recently told Consortium News, an online investigative magazine.
After the Supreme Court's indecision on his 2014 executive actions, law professor Peter Markowitz said Obama could just pardon the undocumented immigrants who would have been covered.
Pardons wouldn't do everything his executive orders would have done, but they would allow those illegal immigrants to remain in the U.S.
"No application process would be necessary," Markowitz wrote in the New York Times July 7. "A pardon becomes immediately effective upon issuance by a president."